Laboratory of thin films chemistry

The laboratory was established in 1988.
The Head of the laboratory is T. Gaevskaya, Ph. D., Аssoc. Prof.,
Honored Worker of BSU, Layreate of A.N. Sevchenko Prize-2006.


 Directions of the research activity:

• investigation of formation regularities, structure and properties of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials on the base of metals, alloys, obtained chemically, electrochemically and in the result of selective photo-deposition;
 
• development of novel impedance-spectroscopic and photoelectrochemical methods for investigation of the processes of metal and semi-conductor films formation;
 
• investigation of corrosion processes of metals and alloys using complex of electrochemical and spectroscopic methods;
 
• synthesis of complex oxide materials with a contolled structure, determining their properties, creation on their basis of new high-performance, microheterogeneous, thin film photocatalysts, catalysts for pyrolysis catalysts and selective oxidation, adsorption-sensitive sensors;

• development of the technologies for deposition of functional (electroconductive,  protective, anticorrosion, light-absorbing, antifriction, decorative and others) coatings on the base of metals, alloys and composites for the goods of microelectronic applications,  instrument-making and machine-building enterprises;  

• development of scientific bases of recycling processes of various kinds of technology-related waste and chemical methods of the isolation of precious metals from them.


Main achievements:

• the principles of electrochemical and chemical synthesis of thin-film and thick-layer protective functional coatings of a new generation based on metals and alloys, as well as composite coatings with carbon nanomaterials and ultrafine metal oxides were scientifically proved and realized on practice, chemical and phase composition of the coatings their structure and morphology, physical and mechanical, electrical and corrosion and chemical properties have been investigated;
 
• new method for the diagnosis of the energy state of the surface of the quantum dots, which allows to predict and control their stability and photoluminescence properties in various environments has been proposed based on a systematic investigation of the mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation-reduction of semiconductor nanoparticles;
 
• new scientific direction in electrochemistry, the subject of which is the investigation of the frequency dynamics of the electrochemical response under controlled variable electrode potential was created, methods for production of multidimensional frequency characteristics of electrochemical systems (real and imaginary parts of the impedance as functions of both frequency and electrode potential) and their computer analysis have been developed;
 
• fundamentally new photorecording material based on nanostructured titanium dioxide doped with noble metals ions, characterized by internal chemical amplification and the ability to invert the final image of the metal has been created based on the results of a comprehensive investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of photocatalytic processes in the «wide gap-oxide-bimetallic nanoparticles» systems;
 

   


• technology deposition of anticorrosive hybrid organic-inorganic coatings containing zirconia, titanium and silicon oxides nanoparticles, used for replacing existing chromium-containing primer coatings, applied on light alloys before plating of thick paint coatings has been developed;

• new approaches have been developed to the creation of anticorrosion coatings that provide self-healing of corrosion seats in which the delivery of a corrosion inhibitor to the site of the defect has been achieved by the introduction of nanocontainers with the inhibitor (oxide nanoclusters, polyelectrolyte nanocapsules synthesized by LBL method, layered double metal hydroxides) into the hybrid sol-gel film;
 
• a new method of plasma-electroimplosion metal processing in solutions providing formation on the metal surface of low defect doped oxide films of various compositions with a new set of unusual properties, useful for engineering, microelectronics and medicine has been developed;
 
• a fundamentally new information in the field of synthesis of nanostructured complex oxide materials for various purposeswas obtained, important structural parameters of the developed materials, allowing to control the gas sensing properties of sensors based on Fe2O3-In2O3 and catalytic properties of systems based on CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3 and CeO2-Sm2O3 for hydrogen energy have been established;
 
• new approaches to the processing of industrial wastes of various types have been developed and implemented at the UE «Unidragmet BSU», which provide 10-50 fold enrichment with concentrates of precious metals.
 

 

 Developments:

• technology of electrochemical deposition of nickel-boron alloy at a variety of products, instead of gold, silver, palladium, chromium, nickel (gold medal at the IV Moscow International fair of innovations and investments in 2004 year) has been implemented in the production of a number of enterprises of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation: Co.Ltd «Minskii chasovoi zavod», Co.Ltd «Mogilevliftmash», Co.Ltd «Ecran» (Borisov), Co.Ltd «BelOMO» Vavilov plant» (Minsk), RUE «Molodechnenskii Radiozavod «Sputnik», Co.Ltd «Minskii electromechanicheskii zavod», PE «ENVA», Co.Ltd «BelTIZ» (Molodechno), Co.Ltd «Diatronik» (Minsk), Co.Ltd «Blick» (Tula), Co.Ltd «Nadezhda» (Miass, Chelyabinsk region), etc.;
 
• technology of electrochemical deposition of double-layer composite coatings of nickel-boron-diamond/iron for production of cutting discs has been implemented in series production of Co.Ltd «Gomelskoe IM Crystal» (Belarus), and IM «Crystal» (Smolensk, Russia);
 
• technology of electrochemical deposition of composite coatings of nickel-diamond-ultrafine diamond and nickel-diamond-fullerenol on  diamond cutting discs used for cutting semiconductor wafers on crystals has been implemented at Co.Ltd «Planar» (gold medal on Technical Fair «Hi-Tech. Innovation . Investments, St. Petersburg - 2010).
 
• technology for producing two-layer functional coating nickel-boron/immersion gold have been used in the manufacture of specialized contacts in the production of technical devices (oscilloscopes, voltmeters, power supplies, etc.) and medical supplies (hearing aids, glucometers) «Elta-SAT», «Elta-SAT plus», «ISC-3» «Satellite express», «ISC-3», «Satellite express mini»);
 
• the laboratory has its own production of boron-containing composition for solutions of electrochemical deposition of nickel-boron, cobalt-boron and nickel-cobalt-boron coatings;
 

      


• technology of chemical deposition of gold coatings has been implemented at Co.Ltd «Coral» (Gomel) (silver medal on the V Moscow International fair of innovation and investments in 2005 year);
 
• technology of functional piezoceramic metallization;
 
• technology of aerosol-jet metallization of dielectrics for the producing of conductive metal coating in the manufacture of electroforming copies (gold medal on the International Exhibition-congress «Hi-Tech. Investments. Innovations», St. Petersburg-2006) has been implemented in series production of CC «Holographicheskaya industriya» (Minsk);
 
• technology for producing light-absorbing black composite coatings;
 
• technology of  electrochemical deposition of copper and nickel on steel, cast iron and alloy products from zinc, aluminum and copper without undelayer (silver medal on the V Moscow international interior innovation and investments in 2005 year);
 
• technology of deposition of copper-containing composite protective and decorative coatings;
 
• technology of application of organic protective film on copper and copper alloys, providing solderability of copper surfaces and corrosion protection;
 
• technology options and solutions for sulphate peroxide etching of copper.
 
Collaborators  of the laboratory Vorobyova T.N., Gaevskaya T.V., Stepanova L.I.  were awarded to A.N. Sevchenko Prize -2006 for the investigations and development of the processes for deposition of metals, alloys and composite coatings from the solutions and their implementation at enterprises of the Republic of Belarus.Technologies:
  • Technology of Electroplating of Nickel–Boron Coating on Different Substances Instead of Gold, Silver, Palladium, Chromium and Nickel
  • Solutions set for aerosol-jet metallization used for the production of holographic signs
  • Direct Electrochemical Plating of Copper and Nickel on Steel, Gray Iron, Aluminium, Zink and their Alloys
  • Electrochemical Plating of Copper-Containing Protective and Decorative Colored Coatings
  • Production Technology of Heat-Resistant Nickel-based Multilayer Coating
  • Metallization of Functional Piezoceramic
  • Technology and Solution for thick Layered Electroless Copper Deposition
  • Technology of Conductive Pattern Plating on Photochemically Activated Polymer Substrates
  • Technology of electrochemical deposition of two-layer iron-diamond /nickel-boron-diamond composite coating for production of faceting disks
  • Technology of Electroless Gold Platingand Solutions for this Process
  • Technology of Electroplating Deposition of Hardening Coatings on the Base of Nickel and Ultra-Dispersed Tungsten or Molybdenum Oxides
  • Technology of Electroless Gold Platingand Solutions for this Process

 Main publications of the last years:

Reviews:

  1. Vrublevskaya O. N., Vorobyova T.N., Galuza M. G., Shikun M. A., Kudaka A. A., Venhlinskaya E.E. Synthesis of Powders and Coatings of Tin and Its Alloys with a Controlled Composition and Structure by Cementation from Solutions // Advances in Chemistry Research.  Chapter 4. 2019. Vol. 52.  С.133-253
  2. Cesiulis H., Tsyntsaru N.,  Ramanavicius A.,  Ragoisha G., The study of thin films by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Chapter 1 in: Nanostructures and thin films for multifunctional applications, I. Tiginyanu, P. Topala, V. Ursaki (Eds.). Springer. 2016. P. 3–42.
  3. Sviridova T.V., Stepanova L.I., Sviridov D.V. Nano- and microcrystals of molybdenum trioxide and metal-matrix composites on their basis In: Molybdenum: Characteristics, Production and Applications/ Ed. by M. Ortiz et al. Nova Sci. Publishers. NY. 2012. P. 147-179.

  
Articles:
 
2020

  1. Ivanovskaya M., Ovodok E., Gaevskaya T., Kotsikau D., Bilanych V., Micusik M.   Effect of Au nnanoparticles on the gas sensitivity of nanosized SnO2// Mater. Chem.and Phys.2020 (IF 3.4)
  2. Ivanovskaya M., Ovodok E., Gaevskaya T., Kotsikau D., Kormosh V., Bilanych V., Micusik M.Effect of Au nanoparticles on the gas sensitivity of nanosized SnO2 // Mater. Chem. and Phys.2021. Vol. 258. P.123858–123866. ( IF 3.408).
  3. Ovodok E., Maltanava H., Poznyak S., Ivanovskaya M., Shendyakov V., Spacek V., Scharnagl N., Maia F., Tedim J. Rhodamine-loaded TiO2 particles for detection of polymer coating UV degradation// Materials Today: Proceedings.  2020. Vol. 20. Part 3.P. 320–328.
  4. Ivanovskaya M., Ovodok E., Kotsikau D. Azarko I, Micusik M., Omastova M and Golovanov V. Structural transformation and nature of defects in titanium carbide treated in different redox atmospheres // RSC Advances. 2020. Vol. 10. P. 25602–25608. (IF 2.9).
  5. Ragoisha G.A. Challenge for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the dynamic world // J. Solid State Electrochem. 2020. V. 24. P. 2171–2172 (IF 2.646).
  6. Jo J.H.,  Aniskevich Y.,  Kim J., Choi J.U., Kim H.J., Jung Y.H.,  Ahn D., Jeon T.Y., Lee K.-S., Song S.H., Kim H., Ragoisha G., Mazanik A., Streltsov E., Myung S.-T.  New insight on open-structured sodium vanadium oxide as high-capacity and long life cathode for Zn–ion storage: structure, electrochemistry, and first-principles calculation // Adv. Energy Mater. 2020. 2001595 (IF 25.245).
  7. Ragoisha G.A., Aniskevich Y.M., A.S. Bakavets A.S., Streltsov E.A. Electrochemistry of metal adlayers on metal chalcogenides  // J. Solid State Electrochem. 2020. V. 24. P. 2585–2594 (IF 2.646).
  8. Bakavets A., Aniskevich Y., Yakimenko O., Jo J.H., Vernickaite E., Tsyntsaru N., Cesiulis H., Kuo L.-Y., Kaghazchi P., Ragoisha G., Myung S.-T., Streltsov E.  Pulse electrodeposited bismuth-tellurium superlattices with controllable bismuth content // J. Power Sources 450 (2020) 227605 (IF 8.247).
  9. Bouali A.C., Iuzviuk M.H., Serdechnova M., Yasakau K.A., Wieland  D.C.F., Dovzhenko G., Maltanava H., Zobkalo I.A., Ferreira M.G.S., Zheludkevich M.L.Zn-Al LDH growth on AA2024 and zinc and their intercalation with chloride: Comparison of crystal structure and kinetics // Appl. Surf. Sci. 2020.  Vol. 50- P. 144027. (IF=5.155)
  10. Novell-Leruth G., Pérez-Sánchez G., Galvão T. L. P., Boiba D., Poznyak S., Carneiro J., Tedim J., Gomes J. R. B. Unveiling the local structure of  2-mercaptobenzothiazole intercalated in (Zn2Al)  layered double hydroxides // Applied Clay Science. 2020. Vol.198. P.105842. (IF4,605)

2019 г.

  1. Jo J. H., Choi J.U., Cho M.K., Aniskevich Y., Kim H., Ragoisha G., Streltsov E., Kim J., Myung S.-T. Hollandite-Type VO1.75(OH)0.5: Effective sodium storage for high-performance sodium-ion batteries // Adv. Energy Mater. 2019. Vol. 9. No 22. P. 1900603 (1-10). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201900603 (IF=24.884)
  2. .Aniskevich Y. M., Malashchonak M. V., Bakavets A. S., Ragoisha G. A., Streltsov E. A. Determination of the electrochemically active surface area of PbSe and Bi2Te3 films using the deposition of lead atoms// Theor. Experim. Chem. 2019. Vol. 55.  Issue 1. P. 64–71.
  3. .Aniskevich Y., Malashchonak M., Antanovich A., Prudnikau A., Ragoisha G., Streltsov E. Photocurrent switching on electrophoretic CdSe QD electrodes with different ligands// Int. J. Nanosci. 2019. Vol. 18. No. 03-04. 1940053.
  4. Shikun M., Vrublevskaya O., Rabenok A. The obtaining of  Sn-Ag powder alloy by contact displacement in aqueous solutions// Material Science. Non-equilibrium phase transformations. 2019. Vol.5. No 4.  P. 135-137
  5. Kudaka A.A.Vorobyova T.N. Phase transformations at heating of Sn–Ni–Zn powders obtained by cementation from solutions // Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations. 2019. Vol. 5, No 3. P. 99-101.
  6. Maltanava H.,  Poznyak S.,  Ivanovskaya M.,  Scharnagl N., Starykevich M., Salak A., Soares M.R.,  Mazanik A. Effect of fluoride-mediated transformations on electrocatalytic performance of thermally treated TiO2 nanotubular layers // J. Fluorine Chem. 2019. Vol. 221. P. 34−41. 10.1016/j.jfluchem.2019.02.006. (IF=1.879)
  7. Starykevich M., Maltanava H., Tedim J., Poznyak S. K.,  Ferreira M. G. S. Electrosynthesis of ordered TiO2 nanotubular layers in deep eutectic solvents and their properties// J. Electrochem. Soc.2019. Vol. 166. Iss. 10.P. H377–H386. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0131910jes(IF=3.120)
  8.  Mikhailau A., Maltanava H., Poznyak S. K., Salak A. N., Zheludkevich M. L., Yasakau K. A., Ferreira M. G. S. One-step synthesis and growth mechanism of nitrate intercalated ZnAl LDH conversion coatings on zinc // Chem Comm. 2019. Vol. 55. Iss. 48. P.6878–6881. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9cc02571e. (IF=6.164)
  9.  Ragoisha G.A., Aniskevich Y. M.. Capacitive and non-capacitive currents in electroactive systems. //International Workshop on Electrochemistry of Electroactive Materials, WEEM-2019, June 16–21, 2019, Borovets, Bulgaria. P. 80-82.

 2018 г.

  1. Park Jae-Sang, Jo Jae-Hyeon, Y. Aniskevich, A. Bakavets, G. Ragoisha, E. Streltsov, Kim Jongsoon, Myung Seung-Taek. Open-structured vanadium dioxide as an intercalation host for Zn ions: investigation by first-principles calculation and experiments // Chemistry of Materials. 2018.  Vol.30.P. 6777–6787; doi: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b02679.  (IF 9,890).
  2. Bakavets A.S., Aniskevich Y.M., Ragoisha G.A., Streltsov E.A.. Underpotential deposition of  lead onto Bi2Te3/Te heterostructures // Electrochemistry Communications. 2018. Vol.94. P.23–26; doi: 10.1016/j.elecom.2018.07.018. (IF 4,820).
  3. Ovodok E., Maltanava H., Poznyak S., Ivanovskaya M., Kudlash A., Scharnagl N., Tedim J. Sol-gel template synthesis of mesoporous carbon-doped TiO2 with photocatalytic activity under visible light // Materials Today: Proceedings.2018. Vol. 2. Iss. 9. Part 2. P. 17422-17443.
  4. Maltanava H., Poznyak S., Ovodok E., Ivanovskaya M., Frederico M., Kudlash A., Scharnagl N., Tedim J. Synthesis of ZnO mesoporous powders and their application in dye photodegradation // Materials Today: Proceedings. 2018. Vol. 2. Iss. 9. Part 2. P. 17414-17421.
  5. Lisenkov A. D., Poznyak S. K., Almeida C. M. R.,. Zheludkevich M. L, Ferreira M. G. S. Encapsulation of Al and Ti-Al alloy 1-D nanorods into oxide matrix by powerful pulsed discharge method // J. Solid State Electrochem. 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s10008-018-4083-z.
  6. Тishkevich D.I., Grabchikov S.S., Tsybulskaya L.S., Shendyukov V.S., Perevoznikov S.S., Trukhanov A.V. Electrochemical deposition regimes and critical influence of organic additives on the structure of Bi films // Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2018. Vol. 735. P. 1943-1948.
  7.  Aniskevich Y., Antanovich A., Prudnikau A. V., Artemyev M., Mazanik A. V., Ragoisha G., Streltsov E. A. Underpotential deposition of cadmium on colloidal CdSe quantum dots: effect of particle size and surface ligands // Journal. Phys. Chem. C – 2018, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b10318. (IF 4.484).
  8. Vrublevskaya O.N. A Review of Developments in Au-Sn Eutectic Alloy Electrodeposition // Innovations in Corrosion and Materials Science. 2018. Vol. 8, № 1. P. 2-23. DOI: 10.2174/2352094908666180907155204.
  9. Shikun M., Vrublevskaya O. Method of cyclic voltammograms in the determination of Sn(II) in strongly acid electrolytes for tin electrodeposition // Proceedings of the 14th ISC Modern Analytical Chemistry. Prague 2018. P. 169-174.

2017г.

  1. Ivanou D.K., Ivanova Yu.A., Ragoisha G.A., Aniskevich Y.M., Chulkin P.V. and Streltsov E.A. Electrodeposition of tellurium and on tellurium: Chapter 4 in: Tellurium: Properties, Uses and Research, D. Grey (Ed.), Nova Science Publ. N.Y. 2017. P. 171-208.
  2. Ivanov D.K., Ivanova Yu.A., Poznyak S.K., Starikevich M., Ferreira M., Mendes A., Streltsov E.A. Spectral sensitization of TiO2 with electrodeposited PbSe: improvement of photocurrent stability and light conversion efficiency// Electrochim. Acta. 2017. Vol. 249. P. 369-376. (IF 3,289).
  3. Maltanava H., Poznyak S., Starykevich M., Ivanovskaya M. Electrocatalytic activity of Au nanoparticles onto TiOnanotubular layers in oxygen electroreduction reaction: size and support effects// Electrochim. Acta. 2016. Vol. 222.  P.1013 - 1020. (IF 3,289).
  4. Maltanava H. M., Poznyak S. K., AndreevaD. V., Quevedo M. C., Bastos A. C.,Tedim J., Ferreira M. G. S., Skorb E. V. Light-induced proton pumping with a semiconductor: vision forphotoproton lateral separation and robust manipulation// ACS Appl. Mater. Interface2017. Vol. 9, N 28.  P. 24282-24289 (IF 7.504)
  5. Ovodok E., Maltanava A., Poznyak S., Ivanovskaya M., Kudlash A., Scharnagl N, Tedim J. Synthesis and characterization of efficient TiO2 mesoporous photocatalysts//Materials Today: Proceedings. 2017. Vol.4. P.11526 − 11533. 
  6. Bakavets A.S., Aniskevich Y.M., Ragoisha G.A., Streltsov E.A. Bismuth and lead underpotential deposition on bismuth telluride: new insights into the electrochemical synthesis of bismuth telluride and evaluation of real surface area// Journal BSU. Chemistry2017. No. 2. P. 3-13.
  7. Maltanava H. M., Poznyak S. K., Ivanovskaya M. I., Gaevskaya T. V. Photocatalytically prepared Au nanoparticles on TiO2 nanotubes for electrocatalytic application// In: Physics, Chemistry and Application of Nanostructures. Reviews and Short Notes to Nanomeeting-2017 / eds. V.E. Borisenko [et al.]. – World Scientific, 2017.P. 315–318.

2016 

  1. Kopf J., Ulasevich S., Baidukova O., Zhukova Y., Dunlop J., Fratzl P., Rikeit P., Knaus P., Poznyak S., Andreeva D., Skorb E. Ultrasonically produced porous sponge layer on titanium to guide cell behavior // Advanced Engineering Materials. 2016. Vol. 18. № 4. P. 476−483.  (IF1.82 ).
  2. Aniskevich Y.M., Malashchonak M.V., Chulkin P.V., Ragoisha G.A., Streltsov E.A. Cadmium underpotential deposition on CdSe and CdS quantum dot films: size dependent underpotential shift // Electrochim. Acta. 2016. Vol. 220. P. 493-499 .  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.10.132
  3. Malashchonak M.V., Streltsov E.A., Ragoisha G.A., Dergacheva M.B. Urazov K.A. Evaluation of electroactive surface area of CdSe nanoparticles on wide bandgap oxides (TiO2, ZnO) by cadmium underpotential deposition // Electrochem. Commun. 2016. Vol. 72. P. 176-180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2016.10.004
  4. Fedotov A.S.,Shepelevich V.G., Poznyak S.K., Tsybulskaya L.S., Mazanik A.V., Svito I.A., Gusakova S.V.Simulation of polycrystalline bismuth films Seebeck coefficient based on experimental texture identification// Materials of Chemistry and Physics. 2016. Vol. 177. P. 413-416. ( IF 2,25)
  5. Ulasevich S.A., Poznyak S.K., Kulak A.I., Karpushenkov S.A., Lisenkov A.D., Skorb E.V. Deposition of hydroxyapatite-incorporated TiO2 coating on titanium using plasma electrolytic oxidation coupled with electrophoretic deposition // RSC Advances  2016. Vol. 6.  P. 62540-62544 (IF 3.289)  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA10560B
  6. Ulasevich S.A., Brezesinski G., Möhwald H., Fratzl P., Schacher F.H., Poznyak S.K., Andreeva D.V., Skorb E.V. Light-induced water splitting causes high-amplitude oscillation of pH-sensitive Layer-by-Layer assemblies on TiO2 // Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.  2016. Vol. 55.  № 42.  P. 13001-13004. (IF 11.709)
  7. Lisenkov A.D., Poznyak S.K., Zheludkevich M.L., Ferreira M.G.S. Aluminum anodization in deionized water as electrolyte // J. Electrochem. Soc. 2016.  Vol. 163. №7.  P. C364-C368(IF 3.014)
  8.  Ulasevich S.A., Poznyak S.K., Kulak A.I., Lisenkov A.D.,Starykevich M., Skorb E.V. Photocatalytic deposition of hydroxyapatite onto titanium dioxide nanotubular layer with fine tuning of layer nanoarchitecture // Langmuir 2016. Vol. 32. №16. P. 4016-4021 (IF 3.993)
  9. Osipovich N.P., Poznyak S.K., Lesnyak V., Gaponik N. Cyclic voltammetry as a sensitive method for in situ probing of chemical transformations in quantum dots // Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016. Vol. 18. P. 10355-10361 (IF 4.449) https://doi.org/10.1039/C6CP01085G
  10. Vorobyova T. N., Vrublevskaya O. N., Galuzo M. G., Glibin V.P. Chemical synthesis of Cu–Sn powder by tin(II) cementation with copper in aqueous solution // Surfaces and Interfaces 2016. Vol. 4. P. 9–17(IF 1.449) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfin.2016.07.009
  11. Kobets А.М, Vorobyova T. N. Palladium catalyst synthesis through sol-gel processing for electroless nickel deposition on glass / Thin Solid Films  2016. Vol. 616.  P. 793-799 (IF 1.761) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2016.10.021